Traditionally managers assume an almost parental role — telling you where, when and how to work on what, ensuring you do it, and dishing out rewards or punishments. Staff don't get involved in decisions about the organisation and how it works. This approach sets up an almost child-like role for staff, who should just do what they're told and must get permission or approval from managers. Managers assume staff will try to get away with the least amount of work and lowest level of quality unless closely supervised and having direct financial incentives, almost like piece-work, to drive them harder. Managers feel that even though it's knowledge work, staff have to travel in through rush hour to city centre offices to do it under their watchful eye or nothing will get done. We think of these as battery-farms for humans — rows of cubicles with artificial light, bad air, and rigid targets for production.